As that most wonderful & useful thing the internet developed so also did theoretical physics. The internet grew topsy-turvy and so at the same time but more advanced did theoretical physics. Now we seem to have a useful but primitive internet and technology to start moving into a time where the internet is more advanced and both more safe & more useful.
At 88 I hope to see some of the advancement.
“The Times They Are A’Changin” wrote Bob Dylan in a song where he was so right that the Nobel Committee awarded him a Nobel Prize. Under normal circumstances I would cheer for Bob and move on to something else but all new things technical today are coming at us and being turned into practical day to day applications affecting the lives of all living creatures that we know of at a fast fast rate impelling me to create this section
“Everything is a particle!” – Wallace H. Coulter
The definition of particle is very different based on the discipline and perspective we are looking at them.
Here, we define a particle as a small discrete quantity of matter that has an interface with the surrounding environment. Most often particles are associated with solid materials that have an interface with an enveloping gas or liquid. However, particles might just as easily be liquid droplets in air, bubbles in water or emulsions. There is no rule governing how large or small an object must be to be considered a particle. Some define particles as ranging from one nanometer to one millimeter. Some place no size restriction at all – a heavenly body such as a planet or a star might be considered to be a very large particle. However, particle scientists generally leave the astronomical bodies and the molecular or sub-atomic particles to astronomers and physicists.
Why do we study Particles?
There are three qualities of particles that make them unique and worthy of their own field of scientific investigation.
- The first is the interfacial properties of particulate systems. As particles become very small and large in number, particle systems will exhibit very large surface areas in relation to their mass. The interface between the particle and its environment displays properties that are markedly different from the bulk material. Particle Technologists take advantage of these surface properties for a wide range of applications such as: paints, coatings, catalysts, taste and texture, dessicants, adsorbents, rapid dissolution, abrasives, cutting tools, composite materials, ceramics and powder metallurgy.
- The second quality is that materials in particulate form (e.g. powders, slurries, droplets, emulsions) can often be handled, transported and processed with greater ease and economy than the same materials in bulk forms. For example, minerals are generally ground or milled to facilitate their transport, and to aid in separating and processing the desirable elements. Pharmaceuticals are widely processed as powders to create tablets with the right dosage of medication in an easily administered form (pills).
- The third quality arises, as particles get so small that their size approaches molecular dimensions. At length scales of a few nanometers fundamental structural, electronic and optical properties of some materials begin to change giving rise to entirely new properties and sometimes quite unusual phenomena. Examples of these novel properties include carbon nanotubes with a hundreds of times the theoretical strength of steel and an electrical current density a 1000 times greater than that of copper or silver, semiconductor quantum dots that emit light at different wavelengths corresponding to their nano-size, and superparamagnetic properties of some nano-powders.
The study of particles at sizes below about 100 nanometers is part of the science of nanotechnology. In this size regime, many exciting properties begin to emerge along with many difficulties relating to the handling and dispersion of particles. As particles get smaller, attractive forces (Van der Waals) begin to dominate and particles become more likely to agglomerate into larger structures. For Particle scientists desiring to use nanomaterials in a dispersed state this can be a difficult problem but in the natural world this is fortunate indeed. If it were not for this quality, we might be living in a world submersed in a sea of nanoparticles!
Canada plans to submit its Arctic continental shelf claim in 2018 and it is expected to include the North Pole, overlapping with both Russian and Danish submissions that also claim ownership of the planet’s northernmost point, according to Canadian officials.
Under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which Canada ratified in 2003, all coastal states have a continental shelf extending 200 nautical miles (370 km) from coastal baselines. They can also extend their claim by 150 nautical miles (278 km) beyond 200 nautical miles if the shelf is a natural prolongation of their landmass.
However, there are circumstances where a coastal state can claim even further than 350 nautical miles, said Mary-Lynn Dickson, head of Canada’s UNCLOS Program. For instance in the case of submarine elevations, if a coastal state can prove that submarine elevation is part of its continental landmass, and if that feature extended beyond 350 nautical miles from their baselines, the coastal state could delineate an outer limit past 350 nautical miles,
See: Canada Arctic Continental Shelf Claim
“We see the North as an essential part of our future and a place of extraordinary potential.”
In March 2016, when Prime Minister Trudeau was hosted in Washington, D.C., by President Barack Obama, the two leaders announced a new partnership to understand the opportunities and address the challenges in a changing Arctic. They announced four goals:
- Conserving Arctic biodiversity through science-based decision making. To achieve this, we will work directly with Indigenous partners and state, territorial and provincial governments. We will play a leadership role in engaging all Arctic nations to develop a pan-Arctic marine protection area network. I find it very encouraging to see how the World Wildlife Fund [WWF] and Guggenheim Partners, LLC, have helped us in making good decisions.
- Incorporating Indigenous science and traditional knowledge into decision making at all levels of government. On this, I can speak from personal experience. In a recent environmental assessment process for a major energy project in Howe Sound, British Columbia, the Squamish Nation conducted its own environmental assessment and published its own conditions, and the project’s proponent paid strict attention. The initiative of the Squamish Nation is helping governments and businesses make better decisions.
- Building a sustainable Arctic economy, including shipping, fishing, and oil and gas exploration and development, to establish a shared, science-based standard for considering the life-cycle impacts of commercial activity in the Arctic. Carter Roberts [President and CEO of the WWF] was compelling when he said this has to be balanced with “political science.”
- Supporting strong Arctic communities. This includes providing innovative renewable energy and efficiency alternatives to diesel and advancing community climate change adaptation.
Perhaps those oft talked about extra terrestrial beings don’t exist in our galaxy or in this universe and this is the reason search tools like SETI are not finding them. This is not to suggest that mentally competent beings don’t exist in the larger cosmos.
I now point to a number of sites taken from BING etc. for you to explore but you will not find a truly satisfying answer, just a little speculation….
The reason why we exist is for the same reason why nature exists. We are the guardians of this planet. This is our home. We are the ones chosen to create and …
Is there a purpose to human existence? Why do you human beings exist? Is our existence, our life, nothing but a random event? Do cows have a meaning or a …
Perhaps the real question is: Why are humans self-aware? Without self-awareness, we wouldn’t be concerned with why humans exist. It is self-awareness that separates …
OK, to answer your questions in order: Why do Humans exist here on earth? Because Mars is too cold. Why does earth need you? I assume the Earth doesn’t need me.
Why is a BIG question and the yoga system gives a comprehensive answer to this perennial question for all people at all times. This is not a new question.
Earth’s magnetic field is generated by interactions in its molten outer core. As the flowing iron generates electric currents, the electromagnetic field is constantly changing.
Yes I watch some of the space science fiction and enjoy it but I also understand that it is the magnetic field surrounding earth that protects life here and in near space from extinction by the damaging particles that emanate from the sun and other stars. One possibility has been proposed…..
If you haven’t thought about reworking the human genome so people can colonize other planets, don’t worry. Plenty of people are on it.
Scientists of many stripes have been figuring out what barriers would keep us from calling distant, inhospitable galactic real estate “home” if—or when, depending on your point of view— we damage the Earth enough to face extinction. And then there’s the whole question of whether we should try to win a stay of execution for our species. After all, what makes us so special?
Those questions were just the beginning of a free-form symposium hosted March 13 by the HMS Department of Genetics on “Genetics, Biomedicine, and the Human Experience in Space,” the standing-room-only crowd in attendance fueled by pizza and unbridled curiosity………
Health threat from cosmic rays (Wikipedia)
The health threat from cosmic rays is the danger posed by galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles to astronauts on interplanetary missions or any missions that venture through the Van-Allen Belts or outside the Earth’s magnetosphere. Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) consist of high energy protons (85%), helium (14%) and other high energy nuclei (HZE ions). Solar energetic particles consist primarily of protons accelerated by the Sun to high energies via proximity to solar flares and coronal mass ejections. They are one of the most important barriers standing in the way of plans for interplanetary travel by crewed spacecraft.